Head Chair: Morgan Hall Vice Chair: Arrow Griner Moderator: Anthony Hernandez
Position papers will be due on February 2, 2018. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: lhhsCSW@gmail.com. Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns! Hello, delegates, my name is Morgan Hall and I am your head chair. I am in 12th grade at Laguna Hills High School. I have been in MUN for all four years of high school and have learned a lot about globalization and public speaking. I am also on the Varsity Golf team and an active member of the drama department. If you have any questions or concerns feel free to email me at lhhsCSW@gmail.com. Arrow Griner is a junior that has been in MUN for the past three years and participates in the lacrosse team at Laguna Hills. Anthony Hernandez is a junior and also loves MUN and playing tennis. We all look forward to seeing you in committee!
Topic A: Sexual harassment Background: Sexual harassment is the act of sexual violence or verbal abuse being conducted on a person, despite what the victim wants. Sexual harassment can include the request of sexual attention, the act of physically, unwillingly putting a hand on another person or employee or demanding a favor in a sexual manner. The misdoing is capable of being done in a place of work, and even out in a public place. Sexual misconduct does not include a specific behavior or gender, as acting on the same or different gender of the violator. When the actions become unwelcoming and unpleasant, that is when the situation becomes illegal and wrong. The victim is able to take action on what is going on, thoroughly receiving the protection and care that is needed. In the year of 2010 there has been up to 12,000 sexual assault charges filed, the numbers being accounted for of the act of sexual assault, were taken in a place of work under an employer. That would make it so that 54% of employers have faced sexual harassment by an another employee in the place of work. Making the majority of the calculations, women are the victims of the time making 79% percent, while men make up to be 21%. In result of not following what the offender request after the harassment, 12% of the victims were subjected to termination from the position. Often it could be found that the people performing the acts of wrongdoings are the ones that hold a place in a high position, making the offender more powerful to the situation and the outcome. UN Involvement: The United Nations has taken a zero-tolerance policy on any and all forms of sexual harassment. The U.N. has established preventive measures to limit sexual harassment. It is stated that they will first, have regular and mandatory awareness programmes. The United Nations has all of its staff participate in an online programme which is mandatory to prevent sexual harassment and make all members aware of the various forms of sexual harassment. All staff members are required to stay aware of the organization’s policy and to maintain open channels to talk about sexual harassment if there is need to raise concerns. Recently the UN has been accused of sexual harassment being performed by UN peacekeepers who are part of the MINUSCA mission in Bambari. Shortly after the Secretary General announced Jane Connors as the UN’s first UN Victim Rights Advocate and the “Circle of Leadership” as coalition of world leaders to fight sexual harassment. Some UN agencies that work toward gender equality and protection of women’s rights are UN Women, UNHRC, UNDP and UNICEF. The Security Council also took action in 2011 to stop sexual harassment by UN peacekeepers.
Bloc Positions: Western Bloc: The EU has a clear stance denouncing sexual harassment of all kind. They recognize harassment as being physical, sexual, and psychological and created the UN-OSHA to enforce anti-harassment legislation. The EU also outlines its goals for gender equality in it Treaty of the European Community as an “objective” and “fundamental value”. The US stresses equal treatment and protection under the law according to their constitution. Sexual Harassment laws are numerous however sexual harassment in the entertainment industry is still prevalent. The #metoo began in the US and has now spread worldwide. Latin Bloc: Women have increased their presence in the work force and as a result sexual assault on public transit has incred in Latin America. Many Latin American cities have reformed their train, subway and bus systems in order to make them safer for women to travel. There is also a call for women to speak out and report abuse in order to better understand sexual harassment trends and hot spots. African Bloc: Sexual harassment is a big issue in the African bloc due to poverty, war and cultural standards. Women and girls are less likely attend school and are at a greater risk of forced marriage, even when they are still children. Rape is common among AU soldiers in Somalia and human trafficking is also an issue. Women are often offered medical care, food or money after being raped to convince them not to report the abuse. Human Right Watched has done extensive studies on this issue however, because of tensions in the region and reluctance for victims to speak out, it is hard to assess the extent of the problem. Asian Bloc: In recent years, with the rise of women in the work force, sexual harassment of women in the workplace has become more prevalent in the Asian Bloc. An obstacle to solving this problem is that in may nation there is no specific law that address sexual harassment. However, advocates for specific legislation has prevailed in places like Bangladesh, Philippines and Japan. Companies in India and Nepal have also taken steps to combat sexual harassment by providing training programs for workers. However, nations such as Pakistan and Saudi Arabia provide little to no protection for women and have policies that deny women their basic rights.
Background: Maternal deaths are caused by complications when developing a baby or complications while delivering the baby and due to the lack of receiving care from healthcare professionals. According to WHO, maternal mortality is more common in the less populated areas that have less money and resources, such as a developing country, making up 99% of deaths. The problems that exist and cause the deaths can most times be prevented. Women do not have proper care for the complications because of lack of healthcare, information and money. In developing countries, only 40% of women were able to receive the proper care needed when they were pregnant, such as regular check ups before and after pregnancy. Proper research and health care services are key to improving the world's maternal death rate. Today the ratio of maternal deaths in developing countries stands at 239 maternal deaths per every 100,000 women, however in developed countries the ratio can be found at 12 maternal deaths per every 100,000 women. Girls under the age of 15 are the ones that take the lead in the number of mortalities due to their body being underdeveloped and not being able to receive special care and supervision while going through the pregnancy. Before 2015, the maternal death rate was decreasing until after 2015 when the numbers started to rise.
UN Involvement: The United Nations has acknowledged the recent inclining rate of maternal death rates going on in many undeveloped countries. Women are mostly dying due to severe bleeding, infections, complications during delivery, and unsafe abortions. Most deaths are preventable however, in these countries such resources to prevent these are not as accessible as they should be. The United Nations has improving maternal health at a high priority. The United Nations does this by contributing increasing research evidence, providing evidence-based clinical and programmatic guidance, setting global standards, and providing technical support to Member States. The U.N. promotes training materials for health workers, affordable treatments, and tries to help countries implement better policies for countries with a weak economy. The World Health Organization also aids in research and medical care for at risk women. Many NGOs also help young mothers such as the Global Fund for Women and UNICEF.
Bloc Positions: Western Bloc: Compared to all countries in the world the Western bloc has the lowest maternal death rates. The US has a relatively high maternal death rate compared to developed countries with 14 death per 100,000 live births. Greece, Iceland, Poland and Finland are tied with the lowest maternal death rates with 3 deaths per every 100,000 live births. The main cause of death during labor in the western bloc is due to inconsistency in hospital procedures. Reducing global maternal death rates was part of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals. Death rates did decrease from 2000 to 2015 and the goal was reached, however maternal death rates continue to be an issue in developing countries.
Latin Bloc: The country with the highest maternal death rate in the Latin Bloc is Haiti with 359 death per 100,000 births. Uruguay has the lowest rate with 15 deaths per 100,00 births. the Maternal death rates of Latin America reduced 40% from 1990 to 2013 and there are steps being made to reduce maternal death rates by 75%. However, the Latin Bloc still has death rates higher than both the US and Europe.The leading cause for preventable maternal deaths is the lack of adequate health care and education for young people about sexual health.
African Bloc: The highest maternal death rates in the world come from the African Bloc.This is because of a lack of health care and underdevelopment. There is also a lack of education for doctors and nurses which leads to unqualified people delivering babies. Culture also impacts mortality rates because many women in Africa have their first child when they are still teenagers. Many African nations committed to MDG 5 to reduce maternal mortality rates by 75% but few countries achieved it. Some that did were Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea and Rwanda.
Asian Bloc: About 85,000 women die every year in Asia and Pacific due to preventable pregnancy complications. Most of these deaths occur mainly in only 12 countries; the least developed countries in Asia. They are Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and Timor-Leste. These nations have high poverty and low infrastructure. Countries with good economies however, like Japan and Korea, have low maternal mortality rates.
Questions to consider: 1. What are some obstacles preventing access to adequate health care? 2. What are the most common medical complication that arise during pregnancy/labor? 3. What role do NGOs play in this issue? 4. To what extent are countries responsible for providing health care for their citizens? 5. Has the UN done anything in the past that improved the situation?