Head Chair: Ryan Foundoulis Vice Chair: Julia Moon
Position papers will be due on February 2, 2018. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: email@example.com. Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns!
Hello, delegates, my name is Ryan Foundoulis and I am your head chair. I am a senior at Laguna Hills High School and this is my fourth year in MUN. I find the debate about international balancing of powers and perspectives interesting because attempting to recognize all different factors at play on the international stage is comparable to understanding clockwork due to all the independent moving parts. I find it thought-provoking and mind-opening to create solutions to problems that have no defined path of action. I am excited to see the creative solutions you bring to committee as delegates and the debate that ensues!
My name is Julia Moon, and I will be your vice chair. I am a junior at Laguna Hills High School and this is my third year in MUN. I am actively involved in my school and in my free time, I enjoy eating, shopping and sleeping-basically anything that doesn’t relate to being at school:)
Topic A: North Korea
Background: The DPRK (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) has conducted numerous nuclear tests such as destinations in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016, and 2017. The DPRK began its nuclear interests at the end of WWII but did not fully shed light on their nuclear program until the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. North Korea withdrew from the NPT (Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons) in 2003, signaling their strive for nuclear capabilities. The Six Party Talks, a congregation between North Korea, South Korea, Japan, China, Russia, and the United States on the topic of demilitarizing the Korean peninsula have been suspended since 2009. Originally, it was planned that North Korea would suspend nuclear tests in return for food aid from the United States, but the agreement ended up being disregarded. Recent escalation of nuclear development by North Korea, along with more frequent test launches of ICBMs, tensions between the DPRK and opposing governments is rising significantly. At this moment, the threat of over-heightened tensions resulting in a damaging nuclear war is the driving factor in the international community for movements of peace.
UN Involvement: Within recent years, tensions between North Korea and fellow members of the international community, but most prevalently the United States, have continuously surfaced. With no improvements between the two powerful countries, and the rising inclination of nuclear bombs being produced in the isolated Asian nation, the UN has had no choice but to intervene. The rising crisis regarding North Korea’s nuclear weapons has not only threatened the nations surrounding them, but has infringed upon the security of the Western hemisphere. Their desire for essential world domination and political recognition through the provocation of fear and intimidation with their gradually improving nuclear arms, has left countries intimidated. In response to North Korea’s sixth nuclear test this year, which included intercontinental ballistic missiles, the United States has urged the Security Council to impose more extreme sanctions, including export bans, to deny the aggressive nation of hard currency revenues to build up its military programs and continue to construct nuclear weapons. Additionally, NATO has continued to urge sanction implementation. The chief of NATO, Jens Stoltenberg approached the UN with urgency, stressing the blockade of North Korean exports as a way of weakening North Korea’s economic climate. Thus far, eight sanctions have been imposed by the UN against the Asian nation’s hazardous tactics since 2006. Each resolution, unanimously adopted into the UN by the Security Council, calls on North Korea to cease their illicit, nuclear activities and to withhold any lingering threats. Despite their hopes in luring North Korea into joining the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the Security Council, along with other branches of the UN, including the 1st DISEC, have remained unsuccessful. Furthermore, as another course of action, the United Nations, with optimism and efficiency, installed the 1718 Committee in 2006, which would include a panel of expert to produce regular reports on the status of the sanctions and precautions taken against North Korea. Amidst these attempts to lessen the blow North Korea has been effectively serving the global community, terminating any future threats from this nation has yet to surface.
Western Bloc: North America: The United States is heavily involved in the situation as two of its main allies, Japan and South Korea are bordered relatively close to North Korea. Recent actions by both leaders in the United States and North Korea are pushing tensions and raising possibilities of danger for North American countries. Along with the United States, Canada is pushing for harsh treatment of threats from the DPRK. North American countries emphasize the risk the DPRK takes when releasing violent threats.
European Bloc: Most European nations are in consensus that the DPRK’s pursuit of nuclear weapons could lead to another world war and are heavily in favor of the United States and other opposing nations. While supporting the United States, most European nations do not have as vested an interest in intensive military action towards the DPRK
Latin Bloc: South American countries are not as involved in the situation, but overall agree that the DPRK ‘s nuclear capabilities are a major threat to national security.
African Bloc: Most African nations are developing nations and wish for peace and stability from the outside world. North Korea threatens the safety of international dynamics, possibly endangering African nations
Asian Bloc: Although many countries such as Japan and South Korea are heavily opposed to North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons. China is continually providing aid to the nation through economic floatation, causing difference in interest among the regional nations. China’s trade relations with the DPRK give North Korea nearly all of its needed food and energy, as well as other materials needed for the country’s maintenance.
Questions to consider: 1. Where does North Korea’s sovereignty play a role in their actions? 2. What are political and economic consequences of the North Korea’s unbridled actions? 3. How do these power dynamics play a role in the inter-state coo? 4. Can controlling of nuclear arms effectively stem local issues? 5. How does the international community create positive relations in the Asia Pacific region post North Korean threat?
The Iraqi war was started in 2003, during an armed conflict in which Iraq was invaded by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The invasion occurred as part of a declared war against international terrorism and its sponsors under the administration of US President George W. Bush following the September 11 terror attacks. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. An estimated 151,000 to 600,000 or more Iraqis were killed in the first 4 years of conflict. Military activity and airstrike campaigns have destroyed much infrastructure in Iraq. Continual warring has led to the Iraqi state being considered a failed state. The nation’s condition only worsened with the emergence of power and well funded terrorist groups. The U.S. became re-involved in 2014 at the head of a new coalition against these terrorist organizations (ISIS and Al Qaeda) that pose threats to stability in the Middle East while the insurgency and many dimensions of the civil armed conflict continue. The new coalition was aimed at reducing control of the region by these terrorist. To present, the Iraqi war has not reached any measurable conclusion and has since left a destabilized region within the Middle East. Cyclic warring between factions of the state have left the nation in a failed state condition while corrupt government regimes fail to provide any improvement to Iraq’s state.
The persistence of the Iraqi Kurdish Civil War and the instability, which has accompanied this ongoing battle, has led the United Nations to render their effective assistance. In 2003, the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI) was formed under the Security Council Resolution 1500 as a way of providing internal aid for the war-torn nation. Its purpose and most valued contributions have come from a branch of the UNAMI, otherwise known as the United Nations Country Team, which has specialized in expanding operations throughout the nation and establishing 20 active UN agencies. This group has aimed at implementing peace and security and attempting to establish a safer environment for the endangered people of Iraq. The UN Security Council Resolution 1500, prolonged until July 31, 2018, enforced the International Compact with Iraq as a way of peacefully aligning their goals with those of the Iraqi government. The mandate urges Iraq’s leaders to provide greater humanitarian assistance to their people, carry out economic reform-which would lead to sustainable development and to a more solidified foundation-and coordinate programs to improve their ability to provide accessible services for its people with the help of the UN proposed, International Reconstruction Fund Facility for Iraq. With these proposals, the UN urges the international community to contribute military observers and lend their nation’s occupation to Iraqi refugees who have continued to flee their homes due to the war. Furthermore, the UN has issued Resolution 479 to call upon Iraq to settle their disputes and to look towards more diplomatic relations. Finally, in regards to the severe social ramifications which have resulted from this prolonged battle, certain NGOs emerged, ready to asses and take action of the circumstances within this Middle Eastern region. Organizations such as, Triangle Génération Humanitaire (TGH) have been operating within Iraqi Kurdistan since 2013, meeting the needs of Kurd and Iraqi populations. Also present in the country in the 1990s, TGH worked in close collaboration with the Syrian NGO JORD (Judy Organization) to relocate and assist Syrian refugee populations in the region. The aid provided by these regional NGOs, along with UN intervention have been viewed as vital attempts to resolve the crisis in Iraq.
Western Bloc: Most of the Western world agrees with the US in their fight against terrorism. They tend to agree with the US and follow through with coalitions. NATO is currently working on cooperation within Iraq through the NATO Training Mission in Iraq which is focused from 2004 to 2011, where 15,000 Iraqi guards were trained. So European countries have a desire to empower the Iraqi government in order to create stability in the region and stem terrorist groups such as ISIS and Al Qaeda.
Latin Bloc: Due to downsizing of military power within Latin American governments, large amounts of trained ex-military personnel are left without jobs. This has led to an excess of military persons being hired by the Iraqi governments in order to be able to hold control of the government. Growing influence from Middle East ideologies returning with hired workers pose a threat to the Latin American nations’ security.
African Bloc: Violence and terrorist contrabands are at risk of flowing into African regions. Influence from terrorist organizations sprung from the Middle East destabilization has been observed reaching into the African continent. Most African nations are employing anti-terrorist campaign to both combat terrorism within their own nations and dissuade citizens who are at risk of joining a terrorist organization. This being said, African countries have incentive against war in Middle East.
Asian Bloc: Countries local the Middle East hold a reason for stemming conflict in the Middle East, looking for peaceful ways to settle disputes.
Middle Eastern Bloc: Being the epicenter of the fighting, destabilization and destruction is rampant. Most countries want to settle the war and begin a project of rebuilding nation-states. The issue in most need of addressing for peace is finding ways to expel terrorist groups from inside their nation’s boundaries.
Questions to consider: 1. How can pulling forces out of Iraq create power imbalances in the Middle East? What are the consequences of international intervention and lack thereof. 2. How will foreign players play a role in political backing of Iraqi government and reconstruction of economic infrastructure? 3. What types of aid should be focused upon for civilians in the area and where should said resources come from (Local government, US gov., International community, or NGOs)? 4. Should contributing members of the war be punished and why? 5. How should terrorist parties be dealt with concurrently to war? Should there be rules of engagement that all international parties must adhere to? (i.e. No major air campaigns or military operations in regions with large amounts of civilian collateral.)