Head Chair: John Caplanis Vice Chair: Tessa Gonzalez Moderator: Stephen Caplanis
Position papers will be due on February 2, 2018. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email:firstname.lastname@example.org. Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns!
Hi delegates! My name is John Caplanis and I will be your head chair for NARCS (Novice) for the LHHSMUN 2018 Conference. I am currently a senior and in my fourth year in MUN. I was also a member of the Wrestling team for three years and am currently the Vice President of the Yoga Club at our school. Your vice chair will be Tessa Gonzalez, who is a three year member of both Cross Country and Track; your Moderator is Stephen Caplanis (yes, we are brothers).
Topic A: Drug Crisis in South America Background: South America is the epicenter of drug production and trafficking in the world. Most all drug trade worldwide stems from the South American region, particularly Andean countries. Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia are the largest producers of cocaine in the world, and this product gets sold worldwide, predominantly in the United States. While these countries manufacture, Mexico and the Caribbean become the main routes for transport into other countries. Out of all of the cocaine produced in Colombia, 60-65 percent is trafficked into the United states. The remaining 35-40 percent ends up in the European countries. Along with cocaine, a large amount of opioids are manufactured and shipped from South America, usually travelling up the eastern Pacific to Mexico. The impact of illegal drugs from South America has been an array of problems such as public health issues, breakdown of family and social relations, and degradation of basic civility among many countries. The drug trafficking feeds addictions which, in turn, results in a lower status of public health. An impact of this illicit drug trade is inflated homicide rates, Honduras having a high 82.1 murders per 100,000 people. Recently, the US and Colombia have agreed to redouble efforts against
UN Involvement: The United Nations has played a significant role in fighting the issue of drug trafficking in South America. Specifically the UN of Office and Drugs and Crimes (UNODC) has been making an effort to track the different behaviors and routes of drug cartels in these countries. By doing so, they are able to identify the cartel’s weakest points in order to interfere and end drug trafficking. The UN has also created regional programs in areas such as central america to help countries focus on the priorities of their actions. A convention called the Commission of Narcotic Drugs monitors the trends of drug trafficking.They are also the central policy makers for drug related matters. Similarly, the International Narcotics Control Board administers the statistical control of drugs as well as making annual reports on the overall situation of drug trafficking and illicit drugs. Bloc Positions: Asian: Have started to see an influx of several drugs, like cocaine, in their market that derive from South America. Southeast Asian countries are home to the harshest drug laws in the world, some even using the death penalty as a response.
South America: Drugs from South America are shipped throughout the globe. Latin American countries have had no success in criminalizing drugs more. They have started to decriminalize drugs, where they hope to undermine the power or the cartels.
Western: Countries, mainly the United States, are the largest consumers of the drugs manufactured in South America. Western nations have been supporters of South American countries criminalizing drugs more. Middle East: Extremist Middle Eastern groups have continuously showed interest in controlling the international criminal activity in order to fund terrorist operations. Middle Eastern countries have harsh punishments for regular drug use, including drinking alcohol. Have problems fighting the large-scale terrorist drug use.
African: South American drug cartels utilize smuggling routes in Africa due to the weak law enforcement response. Africa has been trying to follow the flow of drugs throughout their country, but it has been difficult with the problems with corruption.
Europe: One of the main targets of South American drug trade. Cocaine is the most popular drug used in that area, and it is produced mainly from Cartels in South America. The EU has came out with their EU Drug Strategy 2013-2020, which hopes to reduce the production and monitoring the trade of narcotics.
Questions to Consider:
What has your country done to prevent the drug trade from expanding?
Is your country directly connected to the drug crisis in South America?
How can your country fight the corruption that has contributed to the weak responses in South American countries?
What effect does poverty have on drug trade?
What are laws that can be implemented that will decrease the use of drugs in countries with high drug usage?
Topic B: International Opioid Crisis Background: Opioids are defined as a “class of drug that includes the illegal drug heroin, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, and pain relievers.” An addiction crisis has risen in response to the high production rates of these substances. The largest producer of heroin in the world is Afghanistan, accounting for 75-90 percent of all manufacture. Fatal overdoses of opioids has jumped 533 percent since 2002. Estimated deaths of overdose in 2016 was more than 65,000 people worldwide. Pharmaceutical opioids have had the most impact on the Unites States, causing an epidemic. In 2015, more than 15,000 people overdosed on pharmaceutical opioids in the United States. The majority of these drugs have been accessed through prescription drugs prescribed by doctors; the rest are being controlled by the black market and the cartels. These substances are being abused now more than ever, an estimated 26 million people worldwide are addicted. Opioid addiction weakens the world’s labor force, starts violence involving cartels, and kills children internationally. A study on opioid prescription discovered that increasing prescriptions from 1999-2015 accounted for a 20 percent drop in labor force participation. It is evident that areas with larger opioid concentration have poverty rates that are significantly higher than those that do not. Also, in the past 15 years babies born with withdrawals due to opioid exposure has quadrupled. The opioid crisis affects everyone worldwide and causes hundreds of thousands of deaths each year.
UN Involvement: The United Nations has made a global response to the Opioid Crisis and the misuse of these drugs. Specifically, the UNODC has been trying to improve the access to controlled drugs used for medical purposes only. Their main priority is to allow those who need the drugs to receive them, but at the same time prevent the misuse of these drugs and the spread of these harmful substances. In fact, the UNODC, WHO, and the UICC have cooperated and formed the Joint Global Programme on “Access to Controlled Drugs for Medical Purposes While Preventing Diversions and Abuse”. As a result of this programme, the UNODC has been assisting member states in with preventing the continuation of misuse of the drugs and the availability of controlled medicines. The Commission on Narcotics Drugs (CND) has passed Resolution 60/2 which states, “Strengthening international cooperation to assist the States most affected by the illicit transit of drugs, especially developing countries, based on the principle of common and shared responsibility.” Bloc Positions: Asian: The world’s main opioid trafficking route runs through Asia, making them easily accessible for citizens. Consequently, Asian countries tend to have high rates of opioid substance addiction, like heroin. South American: Opioids are among the variety of drugs abused in South America. Although they aren’t manufactured as much as cocaine, or other substances, the issue persists to plague their citizens. Western: Accounts for the majority of opioid usage in the world. The United States is currently in an Opioid crisis, with exponential rates of usage. Opioids mostly used/abused in developed countries, the top 6 opioid-using countries in the world account for 79% of all opioid usage in the world. Middle East: Supply most of the world’s opioids because of the economic benefits. Afghanistan is the center for opium manufacturing. It accounts for over 80% of the world’s opiums. Terrorists use these funds to provide for their organization. Africa: Most countries in Africa do not have an apparent opioid drug problem. The problem they do have is not having opioid for medical uses. Millions of people die from lack of pain medication like morphine.
Europe: Opioid abuse tends to host more developed countries. Europe has become a hub for opioid addiction and overdose. Over 93 million Europeans have admitted to using illicit drugs before. This number is rising every year, despite the laws passed to prevent it.
Questions to consider:
Is there a significant opioid problem in your country? If so, what has your country done to stop this problem?
How can your country trade of opioids stemming from the Middle East?
What laws have successfully reduced opioid reduction?
What factors contribute to the addiction of opioids?
What pain-relieving medication will be used instead of highly addictive opioids?