Position papers will be due on February 2, 2018. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: email@example.com . Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns!
Hello, delegates, my name is Ashley Denton and I am your head chair. I am a senior at Laguna Hills High School. This is my fourth year in Model United Nation and third year as a chair for the Laguna Hills conference. Last year I was the vice chair for Historic Security Council and I look forward to chairing again this year. Outside of MUN I am a member of the IB program as well as part of several academic and philanthropic clubs such as CSF, NHS, and Key Club. I have also been a part of the LHHS girls’ lacrosse team for four years.
I am your vice chair, Ishika Shah. I am a junior, and this is my third year in Model United Nations. Besides MUN, I am involved in many programs at Laguna Hills High School, such as French Honors Society, NHS, CSF, Key Club, and varsity tennis. This will be my first year as vice chair and I am looking forward to see what you will bring this year to our conference!
We understand these topics may be slightly difficult seeing as everything has already happened, but we are going to act as if no resolutions have yet been passed and your job will be to follow the position of your country and provide solutions to the problems based on what they would have done and not what they did. We look forward to being your chairs for the 2018 Laguna Hills High School Model United Nations Conference.
Topic A: The Situation in Western Sahara
The war in Western Sahara began in 1975 when Spanish rulers vacated the formerly known Spanish Sahara. Spain’s departure from the area inspired neighboring Morocco and Mauritania to send in their armed forces, dividing the territory between the two countries. The occupants of the region before the new countries arrived identified themselves as the Sahrawi and asserted their independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The Sahrawis formed the Polisario Front, which had fought against Spain in 1973, and took up arms against their new enemies. Algeria, which had always conflicted with Morocco since the 1960’s, sided with the Polisario and assisted them by providing weapons and a sanctuary across the Moroccan-Algerian border. The two parties are still warring and have yet to devise a peaceful resolution to the dispute.
The United Nations has been involved in the Western Sahara conflict for over 15 years since 1963 when the region was labeled as a non self-governing territory. In December 1966, the United Nations summoned a political referendum in Western Sahara to discuss the self-determination of the indigenous people of Western Sahara. Spain initially refused to participate in the referendum, but in August 1974, the country was prepared to organize a referendum on self-determination in the area. Morocco and Mauritania refused the referendum and decided to claim the Western Sahara. They asked that the General Assembly seek mediation from the International Criminal Court of Justice (ICJ) over the situation in Western Sahara. On October 15, 1975 the ICJ concluded that there is no established tie of the territorial sovereignty between the Western Sahara and Morocco or Mauritania. Morocco disregarded the verdict of the ICJ and invaded Western Sahara. As a result, the United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution that condemned Morocco’s invasion and demanded that they withdraw their forces from the Western Sahara; however, Morocco ignored the resolution, as well as General Assembly’s call to end occupation in the region.
Western Bloc- The western bloc is not too concerned over the conflict with the West Sahara; however, most western countries have taken to side with the Moroccan side of the dispute. There is no say as to whether the US is willing to offer any troops to peacekeeping missions.
African Bloc-The African nations are split over who they believe to actually own the land but they are in favor of ending the conflict so the fighting does not extend to their countries.
Asian Bloc- The Asian bloc is not concerned about the issue of the war in Western Sahara because of issues within their own bloc needing to be addressed.
Latin Bloc- The Latin bloc has no ties to any country in the dispute, but because of close relations between the western and Latin bloc, they are leaning towards the Moroccan side of the issue as well.
Eastern Bloc- The Eastern nations do not have any stakes in the issue and are not concerned about addressing the issue.
Questions to Consider:
How are international relations affecting the countries?
Is your country able to provide a solution appeasing all parties involved?
Are Cold War tensions too distracting for larger nations to address the issue?
Would more military action be necessary to eliminate the problem at hand and could any added troops further tensions already plaguing the international community?
What organizations could best address the problem at hand and here would funding for these groups come from?
With Cold War Tensions at an all time high, every country is feeling the strain. Cambodia is struggling with political unrest and a new revolution is ensuing, led by Khmer Rouge, leader of the Pol Pot party. Rouge has taken the poor farmers and assembled them into a communist regime similar to that of China and its agricultural model. It has resulted in several thousands being denied food and forced into labor camps where they were to suffer further abuse. Currently, what can only be described as a genocide is occurring within the nation as a result of the political turmoil and drastic social agressions due to economic instability. As of now, it is believed somewhere between one and two million have been killed as a result of this genocide. Additionally, the United States recently abandoned the military operations on Vietnam which stressed the country and they were even bombed to stop Viet Cong advancements. These operations have added a target on the already vulnerable Cambodian citizens. Instability surrounding the government since the early 1970s, a forced genocide by starvation, and attacks from both sides leaving the nation crippled from the Vietnam War beg for the help of the Security Council.
In early 1979, the Security Council first questioned the country and their dire situation but could not take any action because of the disagreement between their five permanent members (United States, China, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and France). The continuing political instability and civil conflict in Cambodia forced the General Assembly to take control of the issue and call for the evacuation of all foreign forces from Cambodia and autonomy for its people in November 1979. The Assembly also encouraged the Secretary-General’s call for a cooperative effort in providing relief assistance to the people of Cambodia, who during this chaotic time fled their home to different countries to find stability and safety.
Western Bloc- The problems surround the Cold War have consumed many of the western nations and with the United States leading the ideals of the group, it is believed the military camps within Cambodia and not only justified, but necessary. Additionally the recent turn to communism of Cambodia is thought to be the main problem as it is an ineffective political and economic system and it needs to be eliminated so the Domino effect already occurring in southeast Asia does not spread further. The western countries would like to help Cambodia get back on track with a capitalist and democratic society.
African Bloc- The African bloc holds no major stakes in the problem but they will support any solution centered around helping the country of Cambodia get back on its feet and become stable.
Asian Bloc- The Asian bloc is split and are invested in their fellow bloc partner. Some countries, such as North Korea, Japan, North Vietnam, and other communist countries or those supporting communism, find it important to ensure the country is not swayed from its communist beliefs as this is possibly the best system to help everyone in the country. Most other nations believe first and foremost, it is important to get Cambodia stable again and then it is the responsibility of the United Nations to help the government and citizens into a safe economic and political state.
Latin Bloc- Most Latin nations are not involved in the problem but they typically side with the United States and other western countries. The one exception to this would be Cuba who sides with the Soviet Union.
Eastern Bloc- The Soviet, while not backing the genocide occurring in Cambodia, believe the United Nations should not try to sway the country to abandon the communist structure of life. Questions to Consider
How do rising tensions of the cold war affect the perception of your nation towards communism/capitalism?
What solutions will affect your relation with your allies and bloc partners?
How can a resolution be formed to address all countries involved (ie not making the Soviet Union or US mad because of veto power)?
How can the root of the problem be addressed and what organizations would be necessary?
What measures need to be taken reverse the damage the troops caused on the nation?