Head Chair: Kendra Folks Vice Chair: Jonathan DeBarro Moderator: Emily Guilfoyle Position papers will be due on February 2, 2019. The position paper format and all other important conference documents can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns!
Hello Delegates! My name is Kendra Folks and I am your head chair. I am currently a senior at Laguna Hills High School. This is my fourth year participating in MUN. I am on the Varsity Water Polo and Swim team on campus. I am also a part of the Spanish Immersion Program and am in the National Honors Spanish Society. I am also the director of communications for the Green Team and love to volunteer in my free time. Outside of school, I enjoy hanging out with friends and going to the beach. I look forward to meeting you all at our conference! Hi everyone! I’m Jonathan DeBarro and I’ll be your vice chair for the conference. I am a junior at Laguna Hills High School and this is my second year in MUN. At school, I’m a part of the LHHS Comedy Sports team and do track and tennis. When I’m not in school I’m either working at Trader Joe’s or hanging out with my buds. I’m interested to see what you all bring to the conference and I hope you enjoy yourselves here. Hello, my name is Emily Guilfoyle and I am your moderator. I am currently a sophomore at Laguna Hills High School and this is my second year participating in MUN. At school, I am on the tennis team and am a part of the Spanish Immersion Program. Outside of school, I spend my free time volunteering and getting together with my friends. I look forward to seeing you all in committee!
Topic: The Economic Repercussions of the Brain Drain Background: A prevalent issue that countries and their economies currently face is a brain drain. Brain drain occurs when educated individuals from one country migrate to another, supplying that country with their knowledge and work. This creates a system where the countries losing skilled workers have a weaker economy compared to the economy of a country gaining skilled migrants. Although this helps the country gaining skilled people, the country losing this population is left with a damaged economy. It is notable that developing countries lose more skilled workers than gaining them; for example, many developing countries in Africa struggle with this issue. A study conducted by the African Capacity Building Foundation discovered that African countries lose around 20,000 skilled people to developed countries every year. Therefore, developed countries usually have a more stable economy due to the number of people contributing to their economy; the migrant’s country they were born in is left with a worse economy. There are many motives that explain why these skilled people decide to leave their country of origin, one of those being the pursuit of a better education; they may also leave to find better job opportunities. With these motives, they have an incentive to migrate to a more powerful country; a statistic conducted in the 1970s by WHO showed that about 90% of migrant physicians moved to either Australia, Canada, Germany, United Kingdom, and the United States. For these powerful countries, they benefit from the migration; these developed countries are experiencing what is referred to as the reverse brain drain. The term reverse brain drain is when a country gains highly skilled people who help develop a country’s strong economy. Usually, the country experiencing a reverse brain drain are already developed nations, as seen in the statistic from WHO. Although there are benefits and consequences to the cycle of brain drain, it continues to occur and is seen all around the world.
UN Involvement: Brain drain is an issue caused by a lack of incentives in certain areas that cause individuals to emigrate to a more developed country to pursue their own goals. For this reason, it is hard for the UN to really “fix” the issue as there is not a certain goal they need to meet, rather they just have to recreate these incentives in the countries that fall victim to brain drain. An example of combatting this problem is seen in the joint project between UNESCO and CNRS where they implemented a grid computing system in a college in Dakar to both connect them to the rest of the scientific world as well as modernize the institution for local professionals. To stop brain drain in many underdeveloped countries the UN partners with NGOs like Construction for Change to promote infrastructure and technology in impoverished areas, allowing professionals to apply themselves in a modernized environment, decreasing their chances of leaving.
Country Blocs: A. Western Bloc: The western bloc is experiencing a reverse brain drain. Many intellectuals are coming into the United States and other countries alike for better opportunities. On the other hand, many people in developed countries do not feel the need to leave. Countries in the western bloc are the countries these people are fleeing to and they have taken action. The United States have had immigration discussions and actions taken to reduce. While in Europe, they are a little more welcoming.
B. Latin Bloc: The brain drain in Latin countries has significantly increased in recent years. Research shows that 27% of all Mexicans with a doctorates degree work in the United States. Governments have recently put pressure on initiatives for research and how they can keep their population to stay. Countries in constant violence, such as Venezuela, also experience trouble keeping their intellectual citizens. Innovation funds have also been cut in Brazil to worsen the brain drain. Countries in Latin America are having trouble keeping their citizens there.
C. African Bloc: According to research done by the African Union, 70,000 skilled people have left Africa every year. This issue is very prevalent in the healthcare industry in Africa. Many doctors who are trained in Africa leave, which leaves the ones who really need help in Africa useless. The African Union Migration policy framework makes an outline of several recommendations on how to reduce and diminish the brain drain epidemic in Africa. Some of the resolutions include creating gender-responsive development in the economic programs that will provide higher employment rates, development in the professional arena, and more educational opportunities for youth in the continent.
D. Asian Bloc: In the Asian bloc, the brain drain has had several negative effects. Emigration rates in Asian countries have tripled in recent years. One of the situations faced by these countries includes less than the average performance of universities compared to other developed countries. Governments are attempting to improve the education they can provide in their own country. As well as improving education, they are also attempting to reverse discriminatory policies within the hiring process.
Questions to Consider: 1. Is your country experiencing the brain drain or the reverse brain drain? 2. How can the United Nations enforce an equal exchange of workers between countries? 3. How are the economies of each country, the brain drain, and brain gain, affected? 4. Can this problem have big repercussions on the development of developing countries? 5. How does the brain drain affect the lives of migrants and how they decide to move?