Head Chairs: Esmeralda Flores Cabrera, Rudy Besikof Moderator: Kinga Grant-Zawadzki
Position papers will be due on February 2, 2019. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: lhhs1stDISEC@gmail.com. Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns My name is Rudy Besikof, and I will be one of the head chairs for your committee. I am a willing and confident senior that has been in the MUN program at Laguna Hills High School (LHHS) since my sophomore year. In my three years as an MUN student, I have gotten two awards in the nine non-LHHS conferences I’ve attended. I am currently taking two AP classes (Spanish 4 and Calculus AB) and have applied to ten colleges in Southern California (3 UCs, 5 Cal States, and 2 Community Colleges). I plan to major in engineering to help others in society. When I am not focused on my homework, I like to read Consumer Reports, do sudoku puzzles, exercise, swim in my pool during the summer, bond with my family (which includes my awesome twin sisters), and travel. I look forward to working to with everyone in committee this coming February. Hi! I am Esmeralda Flores Cabrera. I am the other co-head chair for this committee. I am a junior, and this is my second year of being in MUN. Beside from studying and doing homework, I am a part of the LHHS Tennis team and involved in the IB program this year. I am also a member of KEY Club, GSA, Science Club, Garden Club, and Literature Club. I have the cutest black labrador in the world; his name is Charlee, and he loves people more than food (side note: HE LOVES FOOD). In my free time, you would most likely catch me napping. I hope you enjoy your time at Laguna Hills. Wish you all the best. Hi! My name is Kinga Grant-Zawadzki, and I will be your moderator. I am currently a sophomore and in my second year of MUN. I play on the varsity volleyball team and outside of school I play club volleyball. In school I’m a part of CSF and Kits for Caring. When I’m not doing schoolwork, I enjoy going to the beach and hanging out with friends. I hope that you have a great time at our conference! Welcome to LHHS!
Topic: Cyber Security Background: Cyber security can be defined as the process of protecting online networks, programs and systems from digital attacks. These digital attacks are normally aimed at extorting money, halting normal processes, and interfering with sensitive data. These attacks can use ransomware, phishing, social engineering, and many more techniques. Cyber security is becoming more challenging because of more innovative digital attackers and an increasing digital presence by people. Cyber security began in the 1980s with the creation of “The Morris worm”, the first ever worm distributed by the internet. This computer worm changed the perspective that people had on internet reliability and security. In the 1990s computer viruses were first experienced, and in the 2000s the first breaches of identities and credit cards occurred. Today, the most important part of cyber security is the response to attacks because the sophistication of these attacks increasingly makes preventing them harder. Advanced cyber security measures are needed more than ever because of ever developing technologies and expanding digital presences. UN Involvement: In order to combat the issues of cyber security that are affecting countries, the United Nations aims for international peace and stability. o highlight the importance of tackling cyber security, meetings were held and resolutions were passed. For example, during its 22nd session, the High-Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP) agreed to establish the UN Group on Cybercrime and Cybersecurity; it was created to address program policies and encourage collaboration. In addition, in 2009, the General Assembly adopted Resolution 64/211. Its purpose was to re-evaluate national efforts taken to protect information infrastructures. In order to measure the impact of this issue on a global scale, the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (ITU) launched the Global Cybersecurity Index (GCI); it was to measure the status of cybersecurity internationally. When it was created it aimed for both short term and long term effects. It’s short term goal was to close security gaps that were affecting countries, especially in developing states; its long term focused on the implementation of cybersecurity on a global scale. According the United Nations telecommunications agency, approximately half of all the countries have a strategy for cybersecurity or are in the process of establishing one. It urges more states to consider national policies to protect them and their people against cybercrime. Bloc Positions: Western Bloc: The Western Bloc as a whole mostly believes in strong cybersecurity laws. Although some countries more than others are at risk for problems than others, strong policies that are in place seem to be effective. (Wilson Center) The U.S. is a good example of the enforcement of good laws, where punishments range from $1,000 worth of damages to a 20 year sentence. (OLR Research Report) Latin Bloc: The Latin American region is at risk of having issues with cyber security. This is mostly due to many countries’ weak economies. (Forbes) These weak economies make heavy international intervention and investment difficult. (Forbes) Weak and under involved governments in many countries also contribute to Latin America’s vulnerability. (Forbes) On a positive note, technology companies such as Cisco and Microsoft are increasing their presence in Latin America by training more officials and opening a collaboration center in Mexico, respectively. (Forbes) African Bloc: Like Latin America, Africa is also highly at risk for problems with cyber security due to primitive economies and expanding technologies. Unlike Latin America, however, more countries are putting in effort and trying to make their internet safer. For example, Ghana collaborated with the U.S. to make regulations for the former. (Africa Business Communities) Egypt even landed in the top 10 nations for international collaboration on this end. (ITU) Although Africa still lags behind others in terms of technology, they clearly have potential to do well in this area, even with limited resources. Asian Bloc: Asia is a mixed bag with cyber security performance. Although most countries do place emphasis on cyber security, others use that emphasis to compromise their citizens’ security and privacy. (Brookings) The best countries for cybersecurity in Asia plan their next moves and use financial motivation. (Brookings) The best countries also use monitoring, reporting, do research, and have designated domestic committees. (Cyber Security Malaysia)
Questions to Consider
What are the conditions, either economically or politically, that a country is facing that causes them to be vulnerable to cyber security?
Compare the risks developed and developing countries faced due to their lack of cybersecurity.
In what circumstances can a country establish strong cybersecurity laws, policies, and programmes?
How did developed countries create strong cybersecurity policies?
Even with their limited number of resources, how did struggling, developing countries develop effective cybersecurity policies?