Head Chair: Megan Gramling Vice Chair: Chris DeBarro
Position papers will be due on February 2, 2018. The position paper format, and all other important conference documents, can be found on our conference website, http://lhhsconference.weebly.com/. Email all position papers to our committee email: lhhsSCnov@gmail.com Feel free to contact us via email if you have any questions or concerns!
Hello, delegates! My name is Megan Gramling and I will be your head chair for this committee. This is my third year of MUN and I am currently a junior at Laguna Hills.Besides being involved with MUN, I am also on the cheer team.
Hello, delegates! My name is Chris DeBarro and I will be your vice chair for this committee. I am a senior at Laguna Hills High School and this is my second year of MUN. In addition to my involvement with MUN, I am the shortstop on our varsity baseball team and study music independently.
Topic A: Threats to International Peace and Security Caused by Terrorist Attacks
Background: The purpose of terrorism is to insight fear in civilians and challenge political views through acts of violence. Terrorists organizations can be comprised of very few or very many; which creates an immense difficulty in locating and destroying them. Dating back to the late 18th century, the ideals of terrorists remain identical. In 1793, a man by the name of Maximilien Robespierre had the opposers of his dictatorship killed because of his support of the use of violence to preserve control. The international community feared terrorism to the point where in 1936 the League of Nations attempted to create a convention which would punish and expel any form of terrorism in the global community. Although this convention was never ratified, up to 15 conventions involving counter-terrorism have been approved.Members of the terrorist group Al-Qaeda flew two Boeing aircrafts into the Twin Towers: 2,996 people were killed. Two other planes, one hit the west side of the Pentagon, the other crashed in a field in Pennsylvania due to passenger responses, were involved. Such events including the U.S.’s invasion of Afghanistan were direct results following this horrid act. The “War on Terror” initiated years of casualties and international threats of peace and security. President Obama declared in 2013 that the “War on Terror” ended and that the most reasonable and logical solutions to denouncing terrorism was for the countries to band together. However, despite the increased efforts to unite in hopes to defeat terrorism, 2016 held an astounding 100 acts of terrorism.
UN Involvement: The United Nations has been constantly involved with preventing threats to international peace and security. UN Security Council was formed with the purpose of diminishing threats to worldwide peace or acts of aggression. In September of 2001, after the horrific terrorist attack on the United States, Security Council passed resolution 1373, forming the Counter Terrorism Committee (CTC) to address the threats imposed upon international security due to terrorism. CTC was established to deny any form of funding related to or involved with terrorism, invest, arrest, and prosecute anyone committing terrorist activities, and communicate between nations on futuristic plans to prevent terrorism. Since the attacks on 9/11, the UN has passed numerous resolutions condemning any acts of terrorism, asking states to improve security, and denying all terrorists any safe havens. The four pillar counter terrorism strategy has also been adopted into the UN to prevent/combat terrorist, protects human rights, strengthen state’s capacities, and address the spread of terrorism. Due to the large increase of terrorist attacks within the past few years, General Assembly formed the UN Office of CounterTerrorism in June of 2017. This new branch of the United Nations is existing to implement the four pillar strategy, improve the UN’s counter terrorism efforts, and ensure counter terrorism is receiving priority responses from worldwide efforts. Then, in August of 2017, Security Council passed resolution 2370 with the main purpose of preventing the flow of weapons into the hands of terrorists. Within this resolution, the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team has been strongly encouraged to monitor the supply of weapons to major terrorist groups including ISIL and Al-Qaeda. The United Nations is constantly working on resolutions to prevent any further harm from terrorist groups that can threaten citizens peace and security.
Western Bloc: Terrorist attacks are more rare in western countries but terrorist groups grow as a threat to these western countries each time they attack and disrupt international security. No western countries are supportive to terrorist groups and do not maintain terrorist groups in their territories. All of these countries are devastated by the effects a terrorist attack can have on the world, and therefore, are willing to work together to terminate terrorist attacks.
Middle Eastern Bloc: The middle eastern bloc, along with north Africa, account for more than 2/3 of the world’s terrorist related deaths. Terrorist attacks occur daily in the middle eastern countries, due to the fact that major terrorist groups such as ISIL and Al-Qaeda are based out of these countries. Middle Eastern governments are trying to eliminate the terrorists within their country and near their borders but it is quite difficult because of the major corruption.
African Bloc: African countries are severely affected by multiple different types of terrorism. Terrorist groups including Boko Haram and Al-Qaeda thrive in African countries because of their lack of capability to fight back. Terrorism damages their economy detrimentally and weakens their militaries. Most African countries suffer from other problems, aside from terrorism, making it difficult for them to aid in the fight against terrorism.
Latin America Bloc: Latin American countries used to be a strong base for terrorism in the 1980’s, however the governments were strong enough to respond and defeat most terrorist groups in the area. These countries haven’t suffered major attacks recently yet there are still many corrupt groups spread across Latin America. Most of these groups are rebel groups against their government or gangs involved with the trade of drugs. Therefore, Latin American has not done too much to stop terrorist groups in the Middle East as they still try to resolve their own problems.
Asian Bloc: Asian countries suffer from many small terrorist attacks, especially in the southeast where many muslims are living. Most Asian countries work together internationally to counteract all terrorist activities. They are either working on prioritizing terrorism as a major issue to combat, strengthening counter terrorism laws, or improving counter terrorism groups.
Questions to Consider:
Has your country been directly affected by terrorism or suffered terrorist attacks? If so, when and which group?
What are some of the main factors that cause terrorist attacks to occur?
What has your country done to prevent these threats towards peace?
What are your country’s goals and plans to resolve this problem?
Does your country want to intervene to prevent any further terrorist attacks or avoid the conflict?
Topic B: Peace and Security in Africa Background: Peace has never been a long lasting achievement for those of the African Society. In recent years, African Civil Wars and armed conflicts have caused over 5,500 in growing numbers in six of its countries alone. The violence rate has been relatively dormant in comparison to the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, where an estimated 800,000 were killed. Research has proven that evidence of a slowly decreasing death rate from the early 2000’s to 2010 has now transposed to a high death rate in relation to the ending of an aggressive post cold-war age. Africa as well as the middle east remains at the top of the charts in acts of violence. Although a major portion of Africa has reached peace, the acts of violence as well as deaths occurs in very concentrated areas. Although the intensity of civil wars in Africa remained stable, the reasons for fighting transferred from interstate conflict to intra-state conflict. A leading causality factor is the Nigerian Insurgency Boko Haram, contributing to nearly half of civilian fatalities in African war zones in 2014. Insurgents used fatal tactics such as suicide bombings in order to disrupt peace and strike fear into the hearts of the African people. Since the events of 2014, an increase of media has established a more accurate version of recording fatalities in certain countries, allowing outside powers to understand the severity of the underlying issue.
UN Involvement: The United Nations is heavily involved with aiding Africa to find peace and they offer multiple different ways to achieve peace. Not only is the UN attempting to create peace between warring countries, but they are also trying to establish democratic politics and protect Africans’ human rights. In 2003 the United Nations formed the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa(OSAA) to ameliorate the UN’s capability of supporting Africa. Their main goal is to establish greater peace, security, and development across the continent of Africa. The UN has completed almost 30 peacekeeping missions in Africa since 1960, but currently they are involved in 7 separate missions across Africa. These peacekeeping missions are involved in South Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Abyei, Liberia, Western Sahara, Darfur, and Côte d'Ivoire. Most of these missions occur during or after these countries/territories suffer through war. In 2006, the United Nations worked signed a ten year program with the African Union (AU) to lead efforts for peace and security. All 55 countries on the African continent are involved in the AU to work side by side with the UN and their fellow countries to achieve a prosperous, safer Africa. The contract between the two organizations has been extended for fifty years to continue these efforts to improve Africa. In March 2017, UN Security Council passed resolution 2439, reiterating their strong focus on protecting human rights of civilians and requesting military aid in the region. Other organizations that have been aiding the UN and OSAA in order to secure Africa are the African Union, NEPAD Agency, and the African Peer Review Mechanism. With the hope of political and economic stability in Africa, these organizations have aimed for African countries to adopt new policies and practices to strengthen and accelerate their development.
Country Blocs: Western Bloc: Many big western countries donate billions of dollars of developmental aid to Africa, believing they are aiding this issue. African countries lose these billions of dollars quite quickly due to tax evasions and the increase of profits in multinational companies. Since the 1960’s, western aid towards africa has increased by an enormous percent but the aid is still not enough to pull Africa out of this crisis.
Middle Eastern Bloc: Middle eastern countries are so badly struck with other issues such as terrorism and corruption so their countries are not too stable either. Therefore, the middle east cannot provide aid for Africa because it would be best to help themselves first. However, few middle eastern countries, such as United Arab Emirates, are capable of providing humanitarian aid to many but they aid mostly neighboring middle eastern countries.
African Bloc: It is majorly difficult for African countries to aid themselves in this situation. These countries are mostly poverty-stricken or suffering through a war. However, Africa is thriving with natural resources, so with these resources, they can boost their economy to provide more for their continent. Africa still required lots of aid especially in war-torn areas where Africans need reinforcements to end the war.
Latin America Bloc: Latin American countries also struggle to aid Africa in finding peace and security. Most countries within this bloc have still not achieved peace and security for themselves due to illegal trade, corruption, and drugs. Therefore, although Latin America would want to provide for Africa, they don’t truly have the capability, the power, or the money to aid.
Asian Bloc: Some African countries look towards Asia as a development status and hope to achieve a country similar to Singapore, South Korea, and multiple other Asian nation. Also Africa is dependent on Asia for trade and the two continents hope to reform their relations in their Asia-Africa Summit. However, besides economical help and political reform, Asia has not provided much other help to Africa for peace and security.
Questions to Consider:
What are some of the main causes to insecurity in Africa? Which countries are suffering the most?
Is your country harmed or affected by Africa’s lack of peace and stability? Is it harming any political or economic factors within your country?
Has your country done anything to aid Africa and bring peace to the nations in trouble?
Is your country in Africa and fighting the absence of peace and security? If so, what has your country's leader done that has improved this issue?
What barriers are preventing this problem from being solved quickly?